At a glance: what are the common medical conditions that predispose patients to dental problems?
This post is based on the section on “Dental care for patients with systemic disorders” of the MERCK Manual website
Disorders that interfere with coagulation which require consultation with the patient’s general practitioner.
Cardiovascular disease is a disease of the heart blood vessels which includes numerous problems. Many of these problems are related to a process called atherosclerosis, a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries.
Extracting a tooth adjacent to a carcinoma of the gingiva, palate, or antrum facilitates invasion of the alveolus (tooth socket) by the tumor. Therefore, a tooth should be extracted only during the course of definitive treatment. In patients with leukemia or agranulocytosis, infection may follow an extraction despite the use of antibiotics.
People with impaired immunity are prone to severe mucosal and periodontal infections by fungi, herpes and other viruses, and, less commonly, bacteria.
Dental treatment may be complicated by some endocrine disorders, such as people with hyperthyroidism developing tachycardia, people with diabetes, hyperglycemia, and people with adrenocortical insufficiency.
Patients with seizures who require dental appliances should have non-removable appliances that cannot be swallowed or aspirated.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are unable to tolerate treatment with a positive airway pressure (CPAP, biPAP) mask are sometimes treated with an intraoral device that expands the oropharynx.
Extraction of teeth from irradiated tissues, particularly if the total dose was > 65 Gy, especially in the mandible is commonly followed by osteoradionecrosis of the jaw. This is a complication in which extraction sites break down, frequently sloughing bone and soft tissue.
- Merck manual: Systemic Disorders and the Mouth accessed on August 30, 2013.
- The American heart Association accessed on August 30, 2013.
Do you have any particular question on this topic? Do you have any comments or suggestions? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
You are invited to comment on this post and provide further insights by posting in the comment box which you will find by clicking on “Post a reply“ below. You are welcome to remain anonymous and your email address will not be posted.