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Pharmacology

Is your patient on benzodiazepines?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Product Summary Information   Indications   Contraindications Patients with known hypersensitivity to this class of drugs or to any component of the product in question. Patients with myasthenia gravis and acute angle-closure glaucoma, but they may be used in patients receiving appropriate therapy for open-angle glaucoma. Warnings Not recommended for use in patients with a major depressive disorder or psychosis in which anxiety is not a prominent feature. Should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe pulmonary insufficiency or sleep apnea, especially the elderly ...

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Is your patient undergoing treatment with biphosphonates?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: Biphosphonates Product Summary Pharmacology Bisphosphonates (previously called diphosphonates) are stable analogues of pyrophosphate. After binding to bone surfaces, they slow the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and delay their aggregation into large clusters. They also interfere with the resorptive action and promote apoptosis (programmed cell death) of osteoclasts, resulting in decreased depth and rate of formation of new bone remodeling units. Lifelong accumulation of remodeling deficits begins shortly after bone growth stops and is thought to be the underlying mechanism of age-related bone loss. By inhibiting this process, bisphosphonates ...

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Is your patient on barbiturates?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: Barbiturates Barbiturates Product Summary Information   Barbiturates are nonselective central nervous system (CNS) depressants, capable of producing all degrees of depression from mild sedation and hypnosis to general anesthesia, deep coma and death. The extent of CNS depression varies with the route of administration, dose and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the particular barbiturate. Patient-specific factors such as age, physical or emotional state and the concomitant use of other drugs will also affect response. Indications Barbiturates have been used parenterally in the management of status epilepticus or acute seizure episodes ...

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Is your patient is on ACE Inhibitors?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: ACE Inhibitors ACE Inhibitors Product Summary Information Drug Administration Dosage Form Strength Benazepril Oral Tablet 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg Captopril Oral  Tablet 6.25 mg, 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg Cilazapril Oral  Tablet 1 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg Enalapril Maleate Oral  Tablet 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg Enalaprilat IV Solution 1.25 mg/mL Fosinopril Oral Tablet 10 mg, 20 mg Lisinopril Oral Tablet 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg Perindopril Oral Tablet 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg Quinapril Oral Tablet ...

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How safe are benzodiazepines?

This summary is based on the Rapid Response Report developed by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: High dose and watchful dosing of benzodiazepines: a review of the safety and guidelines Full Report (PDF)   Key Findings No “watchful dose” for benzodiazepines was identified. Benzodiazepines may be used in higher than 10 mg diazepam-equivalent doses in some circumstances, but data were limited. Context   Benzodiazepines are compounds that enhance the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors by increasing the affinity of the receptors for GABA. Therefore, benzodiazepines are prescribed as anxiolytic medications. In Canada, the labeled indications include, the treatment of anxiety disorders, panic disorder, ...

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How and When Is Epinephrine Used As A Vasoconstrictor in Local Anesthetics?

This Prescription Drug Consult is presented by the JCDA Oasis Team and is also available through JCDA Oasis Mobile Epinephrine in LA (Adrenalin®) Presentation Epinephrine is a an alpha-/beta-agonist that is administered as an adjuvant in local anesthetic cartridges. Epinephrine is also used as an emergency drug for treatment of anaphylactic reaction and a vasoconstrictor to decrease systemic absorption of local anesthetics and to increase the duration of anesthetic action. The use of Epinephrine may decrease superficial hemorrhage. Dosage May be used in concentrations of 1:500,000 to 1:50,000. 1:100,000 and 1:200,000 is used most commonly in a typical 1.8 ml local anesthetic dental ...

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How Do I Manage A Patient Who Is On Anticoagulants?

We are very pleased to present this series of videos by Dr. Mark Donaldson, Director of Pharmacy Services at the Kalispell Regional Medical Center and faculty member at the University of Montana and the Oregon Health & Sciences University There is no such thing as medical clearance. In fact, the dentist retains the primary responsibility for the procedures carried out for the immediate management of many untoward complications. While it is always prudent to get a consult with a medical practitioner, such as the patient’s primary prescriber or cardiologist, at the end of the day, the onus is on the dentist ...

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Do You Know Your Ibuprofen?

 This Prescription Drug Consult is presented by the JCDA Oasis Team. It is also available in JCDA Oasis Mobile Ibuprofen  Addaprin [OTC]; Advil® [OTC]; Caldolor®; I-Prin [OTC]; Ibu®; Midol® Cramps & Body Aches [OTC]; Motrin® Infants’ [OTC]; NeoProfen Presentation Ibuprofen is a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) which could be administered orally and through I.V. Ibuprofen is prescribed for inflammatory diseases, analgesia, dysmenorrhea, and as an antipyretic. Dosage Analgesic Children: < 4-10 mg/kg/dose every 6-8 hrs. Adults: 200-400 mg/dose every 4-6 hrs (maximum daily dose: 1.2 g, unless directed by physician). Analgesic, antipyretic: (Consult physician if treatment for > 10 days is required) Children 6 months to 11 years: Use of weight to select ...

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