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Pharmacology

Codeine or other opioids: Which to use to relieve pain in pediatric patients?

This summary is based on the Rapid Response Report developed by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Codeine Compared with Other Opioids for Pain Relief in Pediatric Patients: Comparative Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Full Report (PDF) Research Questions What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of codeine compared with other opioids for pain relief in pediatric patients? What is the evidence for the safety of codeine compared with other opioids when administered to pediatric patients? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of codeine compared with other opioids for pain relief in pediatric patients? Key Messages Two non-randomized ...

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Codeine and Acetaminophen: how safe and clinically effective are they?

This summary is based on the Rapid Response Report developed by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Codeine and Acetaminophen for Pain Relief: A Review of the Clinical Efficacy and Safety Full Report (PDF) Context Pain has been defined as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.” Pain can be classified as being either acute or chronic. The distinction between acute and chronic pain is usually based on a subjective interval of time since pain onset, the two most commonly used intervals being months and 6 ...

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Brief: How would you manage a medical emergency in your dental office?

This Summary is an adaptation of the Clinical Info on Medical Emergencies provided by the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA)  Treatment of a medical emergency in a dental office begins with assessment and, if necessary, treatment of airway, breathing and circulation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Most often, only after these basics are addressed should drugs be considered. They should, however, be readily available for such emergencies. A sugar source, such as orange juice or non-diet soft drink should be readily available for use in the management of hypoglycemic reactions. Additional agents may be appropriate depending on the nature of the dental practice.   ...

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Does Your Patient Need Penicillin?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: Penicillin G/Penicillin V Product Summary Table Pharmacology Penicillins G and V, known as the natural penicillins, are bactericidal against susceptible organisms. Penicillins interfere with the synthesis of cell wall mucopeptides, resulting in the formation of defective cell walls that will lyse and eventually result in death of the organism. The spectra of activity of penicillins G and V are similar: Penicillin G is more active against gram-negative organisms (e.g., Neisseria) and some anaerobes than is penicillin V. Penicillin G can be given parenterally, enabling the attainment of high serum ...

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What are NSAIDs?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Click here to view the Product Summary Table (web image) Click here to download the Product Summary Table (PDF) Indications and Clinical Use As anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents, NSAIDs provide symptomatic relief but do not cure the underlying disease. No NSAID has been proven superior for symptom relief. The choice of drug depends on individual risk factors, such as NSAID toxicity, individual patient response, compliance potential, dosage forms, cost and available evidence. For compliance, drugs with a long half-life or available in dosage ...

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Brief: When should you use anti-infective drugs?

This Summary is an adaptation of the Clinical Info on Medical Emergencies provided by the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Consider the following when prescribing antibiotics: Use only when there is an indication. Use only when the risk-benefit ratio is favourable. They are not a substitute for establishing adequate drainage. Choose an effective agent with the narrowest spectrum of activity. Prescribe a therapeutic dose and consider a loading dose. Prescribe at an appropriate frequency and for an appropriate duration. Choose the drug with the fewest side effects. Consider laboratory culture and sensitivity tests to target specific bacteria with antibiotics identified as ...

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What is the clinical effectiveness and safety of buspirone versus benzodiazepines, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of anxiety?

This summary is based on the Rapid Response Report developed by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Use of Buspirone for the treatment of anxiety: A review of the clinical effectiveness, safety, and cost effectiveness Full Report (PDF) Context   Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, pervasive and uncontrollable worry. In the general population, GAD has a lifetime prevalence of 6%. Diagnosed twice as often in women than men, GAD typically presents as somatic illness, pain, fatigue, depression and/or sleep disturbances. Pharmacological treatments for GAD include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines ...

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Is Your Patient Taking Calcium Channel Blockers?

This Post is adapted from the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) Drug Monograph: Calcium Channel Blockers Indications Angina Arrhythmias Hypertension Migraine prophylaxis: Verapamil Muscle cramps: Diltiazem  Product Summary Pharmacology This monograph focuses on the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) affecting the cardiovascular system. CCBs (also referred to as slow channel blockers, calcium entry blockers or calcium antagonists) are a chemically and pharmacologically heterogeneous group of drugs, but physiologically they all share the ability to selectively antagonize the calcium ion movements that are responsible for the excitation-contraction coupling in the cardiovascular system. There are two main classes of CCBs: Dihydropyridines (amlodipine, felodipine, nifedipine and ...

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