Dr. Aviv Ouanounou explores with Dr. Suham Alexander the topic of xerostomia in the elderly patient. Video Highlights Xerostomia or dry mouth is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population. In xerostomia, salivary flow is reduced. Because saliva has several important functions in the oral cavity including but not limited to antimicrobial effects, digestion, swallowing and speech, decreased salivary flow has many important implications. Prevalence in the elderly ranges from 45-50% compared to 10-14% in the general population 3 main causes in the elderly Use of non- and prescription medications Medical conditions such as salivary gland disorders (Sjogren’s syndrome), ...Read More »
Medically Compromised Patients
Dr. Aviv Ouanounou explores with Dr. Suham Alexander the topic of epilepsy and anti-epileptic drugs and their relevance to dentistry. Video Highlights Epilepsy is one of the first diseases noted in history and it afflicts ~1% of the population. While most epileptics are well-controlled with medication, there is still a fairly high number of people that have uncontrolled seizures. In this video presentation, Dr. Aviv Ouanounou, discusses the pathophysiology, medications and dental implications of patients with this disease. 3 types of seizures – partial, generalized, status epilepticus Anti-epileptic drugs reduce voltage regulated Ca2+ channels, enhance GABA neurotransmission and interact with glutamate ...Read More »
This resource is provided courtesy of Wiley Publishing. Read and download the presentation (PDF) Watch the video presentation Source: Anesthesia Complications in the Dental Office, First Edition. Wiley Publishing, 2015.Read More »
What are the dental considerations for treating patients suffering from acute adrenal insufficiency?
Cortisol, a glucocorticoid produced by adrenal cortex is essential for the human body to survive in stressful situations. The deficiency of cortisol in the human body leads to adrenal insufficiency which in turn can compromise the individual’s ability to adapt to a stressful situation, such as a dental appointment. Adrenal insufficiency can manifest as loss of consciousness, a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, shock, and ventricular asystole leading to death. Based on the underlying pathophysiology, adrenal insufficiency can be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease) due to autoimmune adrenalitis, and secondary adrenal insufficiency due to disuse atrophy of ...Read More »
What precautions do I need to take with patients suffering from heart failure or acute pulmonary edema?
Heart failure is described as the inability of the heart to fill and eject the blood or supply the proper amount of oxygenated blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body. Normal heart functioning is influenced by three basic factors: preload, afterload, and contractility of heart muscles. Preload is basically an end diastolic volume and a decrease in preload will decrease the amount of stroke volume ejected. On the other hand, afterload is defined as resistance to left ventricular ejection. The third factor, contractility, is the inherent property of heart muscle and is regulated by the sympathetic nervous ...Read More »
Dr. Aviv Ouanounou discusses the topic of polypharmacy including the causes and ways to reduce this phenomenon in the video below. Video Highlights Polypharmacy is fairly common in the elderly, affecting approximately 1 in 3 elders and is one of the leading causes of death in North American geriatric patients. The term polypharmacy refers to patients who take more than 9 medications than are clinically warranted. As patients take more medications, they incur a corresponding cost increase, a higher probability of prescription errors given the multiple medications, as well as an increased incidence of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Polypharmacy can lead ...Read More »
Dr. Aviv Ouanounou speaks with Dr. Suham Alexander about adverse drug reactions and their management in the elderly population. Interview Highlights Adverse drug reactions are undesired or unexpected effects which occur in patients at therapeutic dosages. These differ from side-effects of medications which are known ahead of time through clinical trials and have been detailed in drug monographs. Causes of adverse drug reactions Use of multiple medications (polypharmacy). Many medications are not trialed in the elderly therefore, there is no information about reactions or side-effects that may occur in this population. Altered physiology, metabolism and pharmacokinetics in the elderly. Common Adverse ...Read More »
Hepatitis B is an inflammatory disease of the liver caused by Hepatitis B viral infections (HBV). The risk for transmission of HBV is well recognized after exposure to infected blood or body fluids. The most common modes of HBV transmission in a dental office include needle stick injuries and other percutaneous injuries. Exposure prevention remains the key strategy to minimize occupational HBV infections; however, if the exposure occurs a proper post-exposure management is of the utmost importance. HBV Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) recommendations are summarized below: PEP Recommendations If the status of the source person is Hepatitis B Surface Antigen ...Read More »