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Dental Specialties

What are the effects of surgical anchorage techniques compared to conventional anchorage in preventing unwanted tooth movement in orthodontic treatment?

This summary is based on the Cochrane Oral Health Group review: Reinforcement of anchorage during orthodontic brace treatment with implants or other surgical methods (August 2014) Safa Jambi, Tanya Walsh, Jonathan Sandler, Philip E Benson, Richard M Skeggs, Kevin D O’Brien Context Orthodontic treatment is used to correct crooked or sticking out teeth by moving the affected teeth into the correct position. The teeth are straightened by using a brace. Sometimes unwanted movement of other teeth is caused by the use of a brace and this is controlled by what is known as anchorage, or methods for stabilizing these teeth. ...

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What are the possible associations between socioeconomic position and caries?

This summary is based on the article published in the Journal of Dental Research: Socioeconomic Inequality and Caries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (January 2015) F. Schwendicke, C.E. Dörfer, P. Schlattmann, L. Foster Page,W.M. Thomson, and S. Paris     Context Dental caries is the most prevalent disease worldwide, with the majority of caries lesions being concentrated in few, often disadvantaged social groups. A growing number of studies have found the distribution of caries lesions to be increasingly skewed, with a small fraction of (usually) disadvantaged individuals experiencing the majority of lesions or restorations. It has therefore been hypothesized that ...

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Are there morphological and structural changes in the enamel as a consequence of dental bleaching?

This summary is based on the article published in Materials Letters: New approach to determine the morphological and structural changes in the enamel as consequence of dental bleaching (February 2015) I. Izquierdo-Barba, C. Torres-Rodríguez, E. Matesanz, M. Vallet-Regí         Context Dental bleaching is commonly carried out to correct discolouration of anterior teeth. Most bleaching agents are strong oxidizing agents and the most popular bleaching agent includes hydrogen peroxide (1). Although this bleaching agent is highly effective in lightening tooth colour, concerns have been expressed regarding to associated post-bleaching complications including alteration in the surface morphology of enamel ...

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What is the incidence of pain and analgesic use following restorative and surgical procedures in children and adolescents?

This summary is based on the article published in Pediatric Dentistry: Discomfort Following Dental Procedures for Children (January/February 2013) Nicole M. Staman, DDS • Janice A. Townsend, DDS, MS • Joseph L. Hagan, ScD Context Pain has been undertreated across all age groups due to misunderstandings about analgesic use, concerns over addiction, and the mistaken belief that children do not perceive pain.3 Although numerous studies evaluating dental pain in adults appear in the dental literature, there are relatively few studies in children. Practitioners may not consider pain relief necessary for pediatric patients, as the procedures are routine and not perceived ...

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What are the effects of orthodontic treatment for class II malocclusion in children?

This summary is based on the Cochrane Oral Health Group review: Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children (November 2013) Badri Thiruvenkatachari, Jayne E Harrison, Helen V Worthington, Kevin D O’Brien Context Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year old children in the UK. The correction of this condition is one of the most common treatments performed by orthodontists. This condition develops when the child’s permanent teeth erupt and children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of the teeth. ...

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Could Cytisine be the next smoking cessation alternative?

This summary is based on the article published in the New England Journal of Medicine: Cystine versus Nicotine for Smoking Cessation (December 2014) Natalie Walker, Ph.D., Colin Howe, Ph.D., Marewa Glover, Ph.D., Hayden McRobbie, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Joanne Barnes, Ph.D., Vili Nosa, Ph.D., Varsha Parag, M.Sc., Bruce Bassett, B.A., and Christopher Bullen, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D. Context Placebo-controlled trials indicate that cytisine, a partial agonist that binds the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and is used for smoking cessation, almost doubles the chances of quitting at 6 months. Cytisine is a plant-based alkaloid found in members of the Leguminosae family.1, 2 Cytisine is a ...

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What are the current standards for treatment of permanent teeth that have had trauma and require apexification?

This question was submitted by a general dentist: What are the current standards for treatment of permanent teeth that have had trauma and require apexification? Drs. Michael Casas and Suham Alexander provided this quick initial response.  Dr. Michael Casas is Associate Professor in the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Toronto and Director of Dentistry Clinics at SickKids Hospital.  Traumatic dental injuries account for approximately 5% of the dental treatment sought by patients. They can be challenging for clinicians as proper diagnosis, treatment and follow-up are essential in leading to a favourable outcome. Apexification is the process of inducing apical root closure in a ...

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What are the effects of orthodontic treatment for posterior crossbites?

This summary is based on the Cochrane Oral Health Group review: Orthodontic treatment for posterior crossbites (August 2014) Paola Agostino, Alessandro Ugolini, Alessio Signori, Armando Silvestrini-Biavati, Jayne E Harrison, Philip Riley   Context A posterior crossbite occurs when the top back teeth bite inside the bottom back teeth. It occurs when the top teeth or jaw are narrower than the bottom teeth and can happen on one or both sides of the mouth. The condition affects between 1% and 16% of children who only have their baby teeth. Most posterior crossbites (50% to 90%) remain even when the permanent teeth ...

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