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Dental Specialties

What are the basic types of bone-grafting materials used for the treatment of periodontal defects and what is osseous coagulum?

Grafts include autografts (intraoral, extraoral), allografts, alloplasts, and xenografts. The autografts may be harvested from the patient’s hip and rib (extraoral) or from a healing extraction socket, chin, maxillary tuberosity, or retromolar areas (intraoral). Allografts consist of freeze-dried bone and freeze-dried decalcified bone from another source (usually cadaver bone). Alloplasts are synthetic materials; the most commonly used are tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and hydroxyapatite. Xenografts are typically bovine-based. Osseous coagulum is another type of grafting material, normally obtained during osseous surgery. The bone or blood shavings are collected and then packed into the defect in an attempt to promote new bone formation. Because the bone is predominantly cortical, ...

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What is the difference between natal and neonatal teeth?

Natal teeth are present at birth, whereas neonatal teeth emerge through the gingiva during the first month of life. There is a large range in the reported prevalence of natal teeth. One study used two methods of determining prevalence: method 1 prevalence was 1 in 3667 births and method 2 prevalence was 1 in 716 births. In previous studies, the prevalence ranged from 1 in 1000 to 30,000 births. Characteristics of natal teeth 95% are the actual primary teeth; 5% are supernumerary teeth. All natal teeth observed in one study were mandibular central incisors. A family history of natal teeth has been established in ...

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What is the process of internal resorption and what is the necessary treatment?

What is the process of internal resorption and what is the necessary treatment?   Internal resorption begins on the internal dentin surface and spreads laterally. It may or may not reach the external tooth surface. The process is often asymptomatic and becomes identifiable only after it has progressed enough to be seen radiographically. The cause is unknown. Trauma is often but not always implicated. Resorption that occurs in inflamed pulps is characterized histologically by dentinoclasts, which are specialized, multinucleated giant cells similar to osteoclasts. Treatment is prompt endodontic therapy. However, once external perforation has caused a periodontal defect, the tooth is often lost. Source: Dental Secrets, ...

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Case Conference: How would you manage this case of gingival recession?

Dr. Trudy Nwachukwu, third-year Periodontics Resident at the University of Manitoba, is presenting a case of gingival recession using two grafting techniques.  Dr. Trudy Nwachukwu is a 2004 graduate of the University of Benin, Nigeria. She practiced general dentistry in Dublin, Ireland before completing a Masters degree in Dental Public Health at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. She is currently a third year Periodontics Resident at the University of Manitoba.   Click here to watch how this case was resolved.   Watch the Case Presentation (6 mins)   We welcome your responses to this clinical case. You have the option ...

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What is the difference between fusion and concrescence? Between twinning and gemination?

  What is the difference between fusion and concrescence? Between twinning and gemination? Fusion is a more complete process than concrescence and involves fusion of the entire length of two teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) to form one large tooth, with one less tooth in the arch, or fusion of the root only (dentin and cementum), with the maintenance of two clinical crowns. Concrescence involves fusion of cementum only. Twinning is more complete than gemination and results in the formation of two separate teeth from one tooth bud (one extra tooth in the arch). In gemination, separation is attempted, but the two teeth share the same ...

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CDA Oasis Resource: A refresher on surgical extractions

This resource is provided courtesy of Wiley Publishing. Read and download the resource in PDF       Watch the video presentation (9 mins)    

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Update for dentists: Osteonecrosis of the jaw

This paper is an adaptation, with permission, of the recent systematic review published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research by the International Task Force on Osteonecrosis of the Jaw. Archibald Morrison, DDS, MS, FRCD(C); Aliya Khan, MD, FRCPC, FACP, FACE; Sotirios Tetradis, DDS, PhD; Edmund Peters, DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) Read the full article (PDF)   This work provides a systematic review of the literature from January 2003 to April 2014 pertaining to the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), and offers recommendations for its management based on multidisciplinary international consensus. Purpose of the ...

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In case your patient asks you about x-rays and the risk of meningioma…

The American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (AAOMR) provided this statement in response to a study published two years ago in the journal Cancer and which claimed there’s a link between dental x-rays and the risk of developing a brain tumour called a meningioma. Read the AAOMR Statement (PDF) Key Considerations A number of irreconcilable data collection and consistency problems highlight serious flaws in the study and render the conclusions invalid. One major weakness of this study was the requirement for subjects to recall their dental radiography history from decades ago when they were children. As recall is known to ...

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