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Practice-Based Clinical Research in Canadian Dental Practices: Dr. Edsard van Steenbergen

Dr. Edsard van Steenbergen speaks with Dr. Chiraz Guessaier about his practice-based orthodontic research which focused on biomechanics. His research results are currently published in the Angle Orthodontist and in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Dr. van Steenbergen designed his research study with the help of two professors at the University of Connecticut and the University of Amsterdam. The actual data gathering and analysis took 4 years, followed by another 4 years of work for the publication, writing and defending the thesis. The investigation was carried out within his own clinical practice with a goal of examining the intrusion of maxillary incisors. Dr. van Steenbergen decided to perform the two-year study to validate and verify what he has read and learned through the course of his orthodontic training and experience.


  • The study was to test whether a high-pull headgear is required to counteract side-effects which may occur in posterior teeth and the results showed that it is only required in critical situations.
  • Two common forces levels are used to create intrusion. The findings confirmed that a lower force is better. Higher forces are not any better than lower forces, but the former may create more side-effects during treatment.
  • The force levels were 20 and 40 grams per tooth.
  • The size of the buccal segment. when comparing a long (canine through first molar) and short (first molar) buccal segment, Dr. van Steenbergen found that a long buccal segment is needed to reduce distal tipping to a minimum.

A transpalatal arch appliance is not required to prevent width side-effects.

Full Interview (9.17″)



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