This question was submitted by a general dentist: What options do we have in treating Papillary Hyperplasia in chronic denture wearers? How successful is treatment with medication (e.g. Nystatin ointment etc.) alone?
Drs Joseph Fava and Suham Alexander prepared the following response:
Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, also known as denture stomatitis, is a reactive tissue growth that is related to denture wear in most instances. Some contributing factors include:
- Chronic denture wear (i.e. 24 hours/day)
- Poor oral and denture hygiene
- Ill-fitting dentures
- Yeast colonization
- Allergic reactions to base materials
- Malignancies, nutritional deficiencies, endocrinologic disorders
The asymptomatic condition has a prevalence of approximately 50% in a randomized patient population rehabilitated with complete dentures. It is characterized by erythematous papillary lesions on the hard palate under the denture base and occasionally, on the edentulous mandibular alveolar ridge. It is usually associated with the growth of Candida organisms. Individuals that are habitual mouth-breathers with a high-palatal vault may also present with this condition. Clinicians should also be aware that Candida-associated inflammatory papillary hyperplasia can occur in dentate HIV-infected individuals.
Dental Management and Prevention
The etiology of this condition is multifactorial in nature; hence, effective treatment and preventive measures cannot be singular.
- Prescribe for:
o Patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (mycological exam)
o Patients who describe a burning sensation from the oral mucosa
o Patients who are at risk of systemic mycotic infections due to other diseases, drugs, irradiation treatment (Candida infection may have spread to other site in oral cavity/pharynx)
- Local therapy: Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Miconazole, Clotrimazole
- Lozenges used without denture by sucking. Treatment with antifungals should continue for 4 weeks.
Thorough and meticulous oral/denture hygiene, using denture seldom during this period. Use 2% CHX disinfectant solution at night for dentures.
Effective Plaque Control
While antifungal treatment on its own can eradicate C. albicans contamination and relieve stomatitis symptoms, dentures must be disinfected and proper denture care must be maintained.
Correction of Ill-fitting Dentures
Denture stomatitis can be improved with the previously mentioned therapies; however, hyperplastic tissue will not disappear. In advanced conditions, excision of the hyperplastic tissue may be necessary in conjunction with the fabrication of a new prosthesis.
Correction of Denture-wearing Habits
Stomatitis may recur when antifungal therapy is discontinued. Therefore, it is crucial to educate patients regarding oral and denture hygiene/care to maintain optimal oral health in their edentulous states. Patients must also be reminded to remove dentures at night and when they sleep.
- Budtz-Jorgensen E. Sequelae caused by wearing complete dentures. In: Zarb GA, Bolender CL, Eckert S, Jacob R, Fenton A, Mericske-Stem R, eds. Prosthodontic Treatment for Edentulous Patients: Complete Dentures and Implant-Supported Prostheses , 12 edn. St. Louis: Mosby, 2004: 34 50.
- Gendreau, L. and Loewy, Z. G. (2011), Epidemiology and Etiology of Denture Stomatitis. Journal of Prosthodontics, 20: 251–260.
- Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot, JE. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2009. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis, Missouri.
- Salonen MAM, Raustia AM and Oikarinen KS. Effect of treatment of palatal inflammatory papillary hyperplasia with local and systemic antifungal agents accompanied by renewal of complete dentures. Acta Odontol Scan. 1996; 54:87-91.
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